Are you looking to start or expand your print-on-demand business but want to explore options beyond Printful? Whether you’re seeking a broader range of products, better pricing, or unique features, there are numerous Printful alternatives available in the market. In this blog post, we’ll introduce you to some popular Printful alternatives and answer frequently asked questions to help you make an informed choice for your print-on-demand venture.
Best Printful Comepitiors and Alternatives for 2023
When it comes to the best Printful alternatives and competitors, Printify has to be at the top of my list. This unique company was started in 2015, and since then, it has taken the world of print-on-demand services to eCommerce and dropshipping.
Today, more than 4 million people across the globe use Printfy to create and sell beautiful custom-made products within a few minutes and make money online by selling them all across the globe.
The platform works very seamlessly. You need to select from more than 800 products, including hoodies, t-shirts, products, home decor, and much more. Later on, you can customize your design for the product and add any image, print, text, icon, or mockup that you feel is the best. Once you are done with product design, you need to make your store live and start promoting it online.
You can run Google ads or do SEO on your online store and make money by selling products online. The best part of this business is that you don’t need to own your product.
Key features and benefits:
1) Order routing
This feature is of utmost importance when the item in your store is out of stock because your product provider cannot meet its demand. By using the order routing feature, your order for the out-of-stock product will be routed to another provider for fulfilment so that you can run your store successfully.
2) Order Import
As the name says it all, order important is another cool feature that will allow you to import orders from other platforms like Etsy or eBay and allow you to fulfill them. This is useful when you are selling the same product on a different platform with a touch of customization.
3) Replace order
Do you want to change your product or print? If yes, then replacing product or print providers will help you out. Due to extreme competition or product discounts, some of the products might not be available, or you might want to change them for some reason. The Replace Order feature will help you change products and providers at any time.
4) Product Publishing
Product publishing, or self-service publishing, is similar to customer support, where any query or issue regarding your product would be resolved as soon as possible.
5) Product migration tool
The product migration tool allows you to pick up products from other print-on-demand companies or platforms.
Printify offers three pricing plans: free, premium, and enterprise.
The Premium Plan charges a monthly fee of USD 24.99 and provides customization options, priority order processing, and premium mockup templates.
The Enterprise Plan caters to high-volume businesses and includes custom pricing, dedicated account management, API integration, and access to a vast print provider network.
Printify: Pros & Cons
1) Free to use: This is a 100% free-to-use platform where you can customize your own product and sell it as per your wishes. However, the free plan of Printify does come with certain limitations, so you might need to upgrade to a paid plan.
2) Integrations: There are multiple integration options available with Printify, allowing you to create the best online store of your dreams. You can integrate it with Shopify, WooCommerce, eBay, Etsy, and a lot more tools.
3) Wide range of products: There are more than 800+ products to choose from, which will give you immense options to select the best product and craft your own niche. There are products like necklaces, t-shirts, hoodies, trousers, mugs, jugs, earrings, and a lot more.
1) Difficult to understand: If you are using this Printful competitor for the first time, then it might get daunting for you to understand it.
2) No premium features in the free plan: The free plan of Printify comes with limited features and benefits.
2) All Over Print
This is yet another Printful competitor and alternative that will allow you to sell your customized products online within 30 seconds. Although this is a small-scale platform, they have over 10,000 sellers with top-notch printing needs.
All of the production work is done entirely by AOP, and nothing is outsourced. Right from printing your product to shipping it across the globe, everything is done by the AOP team in London, UK. Their key USP lies in the unmatched print quality that sets them apart from other Prinful alternatives.
You can choose from various stock images, designs, and mockups and create the best-selling product that you want. You also get a custom branding option to add your own company name or logo to each product.
Although the product variety and options are limited, you can have enough room for customization.
Key features and benefits:
1) In-house production
AOP does all the production in-house. When a customer places an order, their team gets every detail. The customer support team and back office staff pull up their socks, check every detail of the order, and get it going. If there is an issue, they will let you know.
2) Worldwide shipping
The AOP team knows that customers expect quick and fast delivery when they buy something online. The AOP team is located around the globe and ensures that the order product is delivered to the customer on time with their product team and shipping team. They have delivered products to every corner of the world and offered fast, quick, affordable, and on-time shipping solutions.
3) Top-quality print
AOP offers amazing quality on all the products that they have in their inventory. They ensure quality control processes to make sure that your customer receives only the best items. You can also connect AOP with your favorite eCommerce platform, upload your artwork there, and start selling.
All Over Print: Pros & Cons
1) Best printing quality: Printing quality is surely one of the best features of AOP. You can get any mockup of your selected product, and it will look real after making the final product.
2) Organic and sustainable: There are ample organic and vegan product options available with AOP in the clothing and apparel category, which you can leverage to target and promote certain products to specific audiences.
3) Customer support: AOP’s customer support team is available 24*7 to help you with any issues regarding the product, shipping, delivery, pricing, and everything in between.
4) Fast shipping: Product shipping is super fast with AOP. Orders move at lightning-fast speed and get delivered to customers globally ASAP.
1) Less products: There are very few product categories and options available with AOP as compared to the other competitors of Printful. You have to select products from only 280 categories.
2) No free account: You cannot create a free account to check out the AOP platform, which is their major drawback.
3) Tee Launch
Teelaunch is a print-on-demand application for Shopify and Etsy store owners. Unlike most of the Prinful alternatives, you cannot use Teelaunch with other e-commerce platforms except for Shopify and Etsy. Once you get your store running either on Shopify or Etsy, you can then get started with your own print-on-demand business on Teelauch.
There is a wide range of products available on Teelauch, which include jewelry, accessories, lifestyle goods, kitchen items, stationery, wall prints, and much more.
Key features and benefits:
1) Global network
Teelauch has a global network, which means their warehouse is located all across the world. As soon as your customers order a product from your store, the Teelauch team will process your order from their nearby warehouse, which is located close to the customer. This will ensure quick shipping and on-time delivery of goods.
2) Advanced printing technologies
Teelauch uses advanced printing technologies to make sure that the print on your product looks neat and clean. They have high-quality 2D and 3D printing machinery and equipment, allowing you to create the best-customized product.
You can use Teelaunch for free. There are no subscription fees! You will only be charged for the products that customers order. You can find pricing information for each item in the product catalog on the Teelaunch website.
Tee Launch: Pros & Cons
1) Customer support: They have a 24*7 customer support team that will help you with all your queries and doubts.
2) Amazing quality: The quality of the print on your products will be top-rated. They have direct-to-garment print technology, dye sublimation, and digital printing as well.
3) Integrations: You can integrate Teelauch with Etsy and Shopify only.
1) Limited products: products available for customization and selling are very limited.
2) Limited integrations: It integrates only with Shopify and Etsy.
4) Print Spreadshirt
If you are looking for an affordable Printful competitor, then Spreadshirt has got your back covered. This is the go-to place for anyone looking to craft their creative ideas on quality fabrics.
This company values freedom of expression, which means you can print and sell anything on the fabric as long as it does not have any derogatory implication. You can choose from a range of t-shirts, sweaters, bags, aprons, hoodies, and much more. Some of these appear to come with existing designs by community members, but you can always customize them by adding your own creativity and text.
They have a wide product range of 250 different accessories, all printed on demand. You can print your own ideas and sell them, or visit their marketplace to discover thousands of designs curated by community members.
Key features and benefits:
1) Impressive quality
Spreadshirt has a commitment to giving top-quality designs and prints on t-shirts. They do all types of custom prints for you with top-notch quality standards, whether it’s I Love You t-shirts or Leavers hoodies. They can do it all just for you. You can leverage their customize tool to incorporate your own design, include text, add photos or images, and do so much more.
Customization is the top feature of this printful competitor, which gives it the upper hand. You can add your own company logo and brand name, play with colors, add text, edit images, add icons, and customize the product that you want to sell.
Apart from creating your own store and selling products, you can also shop for t-shirts, hats, caps, clothing accessories, gits, and so much more on this platform. They deliver products worldwide and accept payment methods like Visa, MasterCard, and Paypal.
Spreadshirt’s pricing structure closely resembles that of Printful, although there are some distinctions. If you’re selling a standard product through your own online store, just as you would on platforms like Printify or TeeSpring, you won’t be required to pay a membership fee.
Your expenses for each item will encompass the base product price, printing costs, design fees, and shipping charges. If you’re incorporating your own text and designs, there’s no need to worry about a design fee. You’ll simply be charged for the standard printing area on your products, along with the shipping cost to deliver your item to its intended destination.
Print Spreadshirt: Pros & Cons
1) Corporate clothing: At Spreadshirt, you can also create corporate apparel for your teams and give them a uniform look by featuring your company logo or a brand name. This will not only help you grab a lot of eyeballs but also increase your brand visibility as a business.
2) Free of cost: This is a 100% free-to-use platform where you can create your own shop or store for free and start selling your items. However, the Spreadshirt team might charge a commission on your sales, especially when they are shipping products worldwide.
3) Forum: You can use the forum to connect and network with like-minded people in the business. You can also ask your doubts, queries, and questions in the forum regarding business or on Spreadshirt as a platform and get relevant answers to them.
4) Various marketplaces: You can also visit various marketplaces on this platform and shop for your own favorite product, getting some design ideas and inspiration for your on-demand products.
Honestly, I don’t find any issues with this platform.
With amazing services such as white labeling, print on demand, drop shipping, fast fulfillment, easy replacement, and no minimum order, Print Love is my personal favorite alternative to Printful. On this platform, you can make your customers the choosers as you get 250+ products to sell, which include men’s clothing, women’s clothing, hoodies, mugs, phone cases, pop grips, and so much more.
Prive Love works in a very simple manner. First, you need to create your account and launch your store, then choose from a wide range of products that you would like to customize and sell, and then start selling your products via an online store. Once you get orders, you can make huge profits as well.
With Print Love, you don’t need to worry about managing your inventory, as everything is taken care of by their support team. You can focus on designing the best product and promoting it, while Print Love will handle everything else.
So whether you are a new-age entrepreneur, an artist, or someone looking to expand the clothing business, Print Love is here to help you grow at affordable rates.
Key features and benefits:
1) Design Library
You get access to a design library where you can upload your own images and manage them seamlessly. You can arrange your images by tags and get them within a click.
2) Mockup generator
The mock-up generator tool is the backbone of the print-on-demand business. It will allow you to create the best mockup or graphic for your product. You can also customize and edit the mockup with fonts, colors, and layouts and resize them as per your wishes.
3) Drag-and-drop editor
With Print Love, you get a drag-and-drop editor through which you can upload your design to the product, get a pictorial format look, and know how the final product will look. You can edit your design easily and make it more appealing.
4) Various integrations
With more than 10 categories and 500+ variants, you will surely have loads of products to choose from. You can also integrate multiple products from other platforms and sell them via Print Love.
Printrove: Pros & Cons
1) Live order status: You can get to know about order status live and check when it will be delivered to your customer in real-time.
2) COD: Your customers can also get a cash-on-delivery payment option, which is rarely offered by any other Prinful competitor.
3) Affordable: Print Love’s pricing is more affordable and cheap as compared to other companies mentioned on this site.
1) Not suited for international markets: Print Love is mostly suited for the Indian market because of their limited market reach.
When speaking about the best alternatives to Printful, TPOP has to be at the top of my list. The company was started in France by two founders, Marie and Julien, after realizing the demand and potential of print-on-demand business. They also understood that creating a website is not everyone’s cup of tea, so they made sure that everything could be automated, right from making an online store to selling products via TPOP.
The best thing about TPOP is their customer service, which is truly amazing. They always take time to resolve your queries and try to get back to you as soon as possible. You can raise a ticket and get your issue resolved in quick time by their in-house experts.
Moreover, if you use TPOP for all your print-on-demand business needs, then you will also be contributing a bit towards nature. TPOP uses no plastic in their packaging, and your products are shipped in recycled bags.
Key features and benefits:
1) Complete automation
Once you start using TPOP for your print-on-demand business, then you have nothing to do. Right from creating your online store to delivering your products to end customers, they take care of everything in a hassle-free manner. Packaging, printing, shipping, and closing of the order in your shop, while giving notification to the customer for the shipment and track number, TPOP will take care of all.
2) Best Branding
If you want to level up your branding and showcase your company logo or name on your product, then you can do it without paying an extra penny for it. You can also customize your logo by adding font and color.
3) In-house production
All the production and shipment are handled by the TPOP team in-house. The whole team gets involved to offer you the most stunning print-on-demand service on the market. They have not outsourced any of their tasks or depend on external workshops.
4) Best customer support
The customer support is top-notch, and you will never be disappointed by their support staff. You can ask them any of your doubts or queries, and they will be ready to respond and resolve your issue within a matter of hours.
Tpop’s got three pricing options for you: Free, Plus, and Pro.
The free plan is an ideal offer to test Tpop services and learn how Tpop works.
So, the Plus plan kicks off at 24 euros a month. With this, you get your very own blog, the ability to chat with your customers online, you can stock your store in two different languages, create up to 100 personal pages, fully customize your setup, handle multiple currencies, and even add a whopping 1000 products, among other cool stuff.
Now, if you’re looking for the big guns, the PRO plan’s got your back, but it’ll set you back 55 euros a month. For that, you get premium treatment, with perks like 1000 personal pages, the ability to stock your store in 5 different languages, tweak your store’s CSS to your heart’s content, open up 3 TPOP external stores, and go wild with unlimited product creation, and a bunch more nifty features.
T-Pop: Pros & Cons
1) They leverage technology: TPOP uses the power of technology and the latest machinery and printers to give you the best pricing on on-demand services.
2) Stock products: Most of the other alternatives and competitors of Printful order the product from a wholesaler or manufacturer after getting an order from you. This causes many issues, as the product might not be available with the wholesaler sometimes. However, this is not the case with TPOP, as they offer you products that are already in stock, allowing them to dispatch your order ASAP.
I personally found no cons or drawbacks with this Printful alternative.
With more than 250 product lines and 70+ global routing locations, Gooten is yet another Printful alternative and competitor that follows a transformational approach to print on demand. The company is globally distributed and helps brands and solopreneurs harness on-demand manufacturing and transform the way they do business.
To date, this company has shipped more than 4 million products with less than 2% error and a 95% ship-on-time rate, which makes them surely the best of all. It is their people and hardworking team who make this happen and give on-time solutions to all their partners and customers.
With Gooten, you don’t need to worry about your inventory or product production problems, as everything will be handled by their team. From all your printing needs to shipping and everything in between, Gooten will take care of it all so that you can sit back and reap the profits.
Key features and benefits:
1) Solution consultants
Gooten has a team of solutions consultants who are industry experts, and they will help you with every step involved in print-on-demand business. You can get industry insights, custom-tailored solutions, and business rewards as well.
2) Product Sourcing
Gooten will help you achieve success in the print-on-demand business by sourcing the right product at the right price for you. Their dynamic routing process sends orders to the manufacturing location closest to your customers, which will also ensure quick delivery and seamless solutions.
They have more than 250 products in 50K variants, 70+ global locations, and a flexible procurement process.
3) Seamless integrations
With a single API touchpoint, you can integrate Gooten with your favorite online store platforms like Shopify, BigCommerce, Etsy, eCommerce, and a lot more.
4) Business launch
Launching your own online store with Gooten is like eating a piece of cake because everything is automated, right from store creation to migrating your fulfillment to Gooten. Their team will ensure that you have a smooth experience with their order management system.
5) Efficient operations
The team at Gooten works with manufacturers from all over the world, especially those who have mastered the art of manufacturing and delivering quality products.
About pricing, Gooten keeps it simple—no setup or monthly fees, ever. You only get charged when one of your customers places an order, and that’s when Gooten steps in to make and ship the stuff.
Now, when you’re eyeing the prices on Gooten’s product list, remember they cover both the item and printing your awesome design. But wait, if you’re a Pro or Elite VIM merchant, you might snag some cool discounts on products. How do you become a VIM? Well, it’s based on how well you’re doing each quarter, and there are four categories:
A. Insider: If you’re making between $1 and $6,249
B. Plus: For those in the $6,250 to $24,999 club
C. Pro: If you’re raking in between $25,000 and $99,999
D. Elite: The big leagues, at $100,000 and up
And if you’re all about that white label support, the monthly cost depends on your VIM status, order volume, and support needs. Plus, don’t forget, you can jazz up your items with custom neck labels for just 2 bucks. Easy peasy, right?
Gooten: Pros & Cons
1) Financial support: For all your financial needs, you will have access to Gooten’s finance team, who will help you out with billing, invoicing, monthly financial reconciliations, and a lot more.
2) Merchant support: Gooten has a global team located in different places to support their merchant program users. White-label customer support solutions, partner support, and many other rewards are available.
3) Loyalty program: Last but not least, Gooten also has a loyalty program through which loyal users get a chance to win more cash and rewards points.
1) Low product offers: There are only 250 product ranges, which is slightly less as compared to Prinful and other players in the POD business.
2) Pricing is high: The price of this platform is slightly on the higher side, which might make it costly for newbies and beginners in the print-on-demand business.
If you are a digital creator looking to start your own apparel brand, then Teepublic is the place to be. Teepublic is a competitor of Printful, but in a different way. Besides selling customized products on Teepublic, you can also shop for cool and funky apparel and products created by other creators on this platform. It is basically a marketplace for creators who can buy and sell high-quality merchandise.
Key features and benefits:
1) 1000+ designs
Teepubic has over 1000 design options, which you can choose from to get it printed on your product and sell it to your fans. You can also create your own customized design with the tools available and create your own brand identity for your product.
2) Empowering creators
This platform empowers creators to start their own merchandise brands and labels. Creators can not only sell their own products but also buy products from other creators or collaborate with them to create something new and unique.
3) Affiliate Program
Teepublic also has an affiliate program through which you can promote their platform to other creators and earn a commission if someone buys any product from Teepulic or starts their own online store.
Teepublic: Pros & Cons
1) Ease of Use: Teepublic offers an easy-to-use platform for sellers to upload and design their custom artwork for various products.
2) Global Reach: Teepublic has a global customer base, allowing sellers to reach a broad audience without the need for international shipping or marketing efforts.
3) Marketing Tools: Teepublic offers some marketing tools and a marketplace where your designs can be discovered by potential customers.
1) Limited Branding Control: Sellers have limited control over the branding and customization of their storefronts, as they primarily operate within the Teepublic marketplace.
2) Pricing Restrictions: Teepublic may set pricing limits on products, affecting sellers’ profit margins.
Teespring is my personal favorite competitor of Prinful. It is also one of the oldest print-on-demand companies in the world, having started in 2012. It was founded by Walker Williams and Evan Stities. In 2014, the company got $55 million in venture capital from Khosla Ventures.
Key features and benefits:
1) Boosted network
When you create your online store on Teespring, you’ll not only get a chance to customize and sell your products, but there’s also a marketplace on Teespring that allows you to integrate with other channels and create multiple sales gateways for your customers.
2) Email marketing capabilities
With Teespring, you can also do email marketing and send personalized messages to your existing customers, or cross-sell and upsell them more products. You can use Teespring’s messaging feature in your account and send emails directly from your account to customers.
3) Unique products
Teespring has a wide range of products to offer. There are more than 300 products to select from, such as tees, shirts, sweaters, hats, and a lot more. You can easily customize each of these products and design them as per your own whims and fancies.
4) Pixel tracking
If you want to market and promote your products on social media, then you can use the pixel tracking feature of Teespring. The tracking results will directly appear in the analytics dashboard with metrics like clicks, impressions, sales, and conversions.
Just like most print-on-demand services out there, Teespring doesn’t cost you a dime to get started. You can create an account, upload your cool designs, and dive right into selling without risking your wallet. Teespring makes its dough by taking a fixed amount from each sale, not a percentage. You’re in control of setting your selling price, and Teespring’s cut stays constant.
Now, there’s a heap of items available, and we won’t bore you by listing them all here. Instead, we’ll give you a ballpark figure for what these goodies might set you back, depending on the style and fabric:
A. Short Sleeve T-Shirts: Anywhere from about $10 to $18
B. Long Sleeve T-shirts: Starting at $13 to $23.
C. Tank Tops: You’re looking at around $13.
D. Sweatshirts and hoodies: These range from $18 to $32.
E. Baby Stuff: Priced between $10 and $23.
And here’s a neat perk: if you’re moving some serious merchandise on a monthly basis, Teespring throws in some discounts for you. So, the more you sell, the better your pricing for the next month. Cool, right?
Teespring: Pros & Cons
1) Marketing tools: Teespring has got awesome tools to help you with marketing and promotion of your products on Facebook, Instagram, and Google. You can also do the SEO for your online store and get it ranked on Google’s organic listings.
2) Easy-to-use interface: The user interface of Teespring is very intuitive and easy to use. Even a beginner can easily use the platform and get started with it in no time.
3) Drag and drop editor: You will also be getting a drag and drop editor with which you can create your online store without writing a single line of code. You can edit the layout, text, color, font size, image, and background; add your own logo; and do a lot more editing than you could think of.
4) Same-day shopping: You can deliver products to your customers on the same day or within 3 days. All thanks to the massive shipping network and manufacturer network created by Teespring.
1) Products can’t be customized. There are restrictions on product customization. You customize each product, just like Printful.
2) Low-profit margins: Profit margins are very low because Teespring takes away huge commissions on every sale.
The last on my list of the best alternatives to Printful is CustomCat. This platform is best suited for anyone looking to create unique and custom goods online and sell them to earn profits. You can re-order 1 or 1000 items without any hesitation. If you have a creative mindset, then the manual order feature makes it easy for you to customize the products.
If you opt for CustomCat over Prinful, then you will have access to industry-leading retail prices, top-quality products, and super-fast shipping and fulfillment services. All your products will be shipped from their own factory and warehouse based in Detroit, Michigan.
Their commission structure is also very good as compared to other Prinful competitors, which will allow you to earn maximum profits.
Key features and benefits:
1) Better profit margins
First things first, profit margins with CutomCat are amazing. CustomCat has kept its prices low so that you can earn as much as possible. Just look at their pricing below, and you will find out that you can surely make good money on this platform.
2) Fast shipping
Your products will be delivered to your customers at lightning-fast speed. The customCat team knows how to produce products quickly. They have an average fulfillment time of 1.5 days, making them one of the fastest print-on-demand companies in the USA. Even COVID could not slow them down.
3) 100+ products
There are more than 100+ product options available with CustomCat, ranging from apparel to custom homeware and much more. To be honest, the product possibilities with CustomCat are endless. You can create your own entire eCommerce company and start selling the products you like.
CustomCat gives you two pricing plans to choose from, so you can pick the one that suits you best. The Lite Plan is a fantastic option for beginners, and it’s absolutely free.
If you opt for the CustomCat plan, it’ll cost you $30 per month, but it comes with a bonus: reduced pricing on all products. This means you’ll keep more money in your pocket. For instance, on the Lite plan, a t-shirt costs around $9, but on the paid plan, it’s only around $7. If you’re someone who sells a lot, this can really boost your profit margins.
The good news is that you can test out the CustomCat plan with a 30-day free trial. If you manage to sell at least 15 units every month, the subscription plan pays for itself. But if you don’t hit that mark, you won’t quite break even.
CustomCat: Pros & Cons
1) Low Initial Investment: Starting a print-on-demand business typically requires minimal upfront investment compared to traditional retail businesses, as you don’t need to maintain a large inventory.
2) Wide Range of Products: You can offer a diverse range of custom products, including t-shirts, hoodies, phone cases, posters, and more, allowing you to cater to various customer preferences.
3) No Inventory Management: Since you don’t need to stock inventory, you avoid the costs and challenges associated with storage, overstocking, and unsold items.
1) Competition: The print-on-demand market is competitive, and it can be challenging to stand out among many similar businesses.
2) Quality Control: You rely on third-party printing and fulfillment services, so maintaining consistent product quality can be a challenge, and customer complaints about print quality or shipping issues may arise.
FAQs: Printful alternatives
Printful alternatives are other print-on-demand fulfillment companies that offer similar services to Printful. Considering alternatives can be beneficial because they may provide a different set of products, pricing structures, integrations, or quality standards. Exploring alternatives allows you to find the best fit for your specific needs and goals.
Several Printful alternatives have gained popularity in the print-on-demand industry. Some of these include Printify, AOP+ (All Over Print), Gooten, Print Aura, and Teespring, among others. Each of these alternatives has its unique features and strengths.
To choose the right alternative, consider factors such as the range of products they offer, pricing, quality of printing, shipping options, integration capabilities with your e-commerce platform, and customer support. Evaluate which aspects align most closely with your business’s needs and objectives.
Yes, you can use multiple print-on-demand providers simultaneously, known as a multi-channel approach. This allows you to diversify your product offerings and potentially reach a broader audience. However, managing multiple providers may require careful inventory and order management.
Yes, some Printful alternatives prioritize eco-friendly and sustainable printing practices. Brands like Printify and Gooten offer options for environmentally-conscious printing, including organic apparel and eco-friendly inks. Be sure to explore the sustainability options offered by each alternative.